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Sections 727 and 1328 of the Bankruptcy Code operate as a permanent injunction against creditors seeking to collect against debts that have been discharged in bankruptcy. Not all debts, however, are dischargeable. Section 523(a) of the Bankruptcy Code enumerates 19 exceptions of debts from the discharge granted to an individual debtor. One such exception is contained in subsection 523(a)(8)(A)(ii). In relevant part, subsection 523(a)(8)(A)(ii) of the Bankruptcy Code provides that “a discharge under section 727 … or 1328(b) … does not discharge an individual from any debt … for — an obligation to repay funds received as an educational benefit ….” Subsection 523(a)(8)(A)(ii) of the Bankruptcy Code does not automatically operate to except from discharge certain private student loans.
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By J. Eric Wise
Among the risks of cryptocurrency exchanges are bankruptcy risk and fraud, including: the inalienability of account claims, holding an unsecured claim versus an entitlement to the return of coin, and bankruptcy preference risk.
By Lawrence J. Kotler and Drew S. McGehrin
The U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York summed up the importance of the determination as to when a bankruptcy case is actually filed of record, thereby triggering the imposition of the automatic stay and found that the “upload” time of a bankruptcy filing — and not the time physically “stamped” on a bankruptcy petition — determines when a case is commenced. In doing so, the Bankruptcy Court offered direction and guidelines that debtors and creditors will be well advised to observe in future cases.
By Avalon Zoppo
A sharply divided U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit ruling shielding a nondebtor in bankruptcy proceedings from asbestos lawsuits underscores the wider and growing divide among judges across the country on the bounds of Chapter 11 protection and corporations’ use of the “Texas two-step” to address mass tort litigation.
By Francis J. Lawall and Brenden S. Dahrouge
Chapter 11 cases involving mass tort and complex personal injury claims often require the resolution of novel legal issues that stretch the bounds of existing precedent. As these cases evolve, they can also impact claims against other debtors unrelated to the case at hand through court-approved injunctions, releases or settlements.