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A little over 100 years ago, the Supreme Court declined to extend the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination to corporations responding to grand jury subpoenas for documents, establishing what has been termed the “collective entity doctrine.” Hale v. Henkel, 201 U.S. 43, 74-76 (1906) (corporate officer, who had been immunized in his individual capacity, attempted to assert Fifth Amendment right on behalf of his employer). Some Justices have expressed discomfort with the application of the collective entity doctrine to small corporations responding to grand jury subpoenas, and recent decisions by the Court have extended First Amendment rights to corporations that had previously been limited to individuals. These developments suggest that the Court, particularly with the arrival of Justice Neil M. Gorsuch, might be receptive to reconsidering the scope of the collective entity doctrine, a rule whose principal virtue seems to be that it is a bright-line, particularly in the context of small, closely-held corporations.
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By Jonathan B. New, Patrick T. Campbell and Lauren Lyster
This article examines recent developments and trends concerning federal whistleblower programs that compliance officers need to know and provides best practices recommendations for ensuring that your company maintains a robust whistleblower and anti-retaliation program in light of increased whistleblower activity.
By Harry Sandick and Gautam Rao
In recent years, U.S. prosecutors and regulators have shown increasing interest in prosecuting people and entities with little or no connection to the United States. This trend has been especially pronounced in the context of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and has also extended beyond the FCPA to the prosecution of white-collar crime more generally.
By Jonathan S. Feld and Kevin Connor
Assessing the risks and liabilities of a potential transaction requires frank and open communication between the parties, including legal counsel. Understanding the scope and limitations of this privilege in transactional settings and who “holds” it is vital to its preservation.
By Ross Benson and Robert N. Driscoll
Given the rapid expansion of interest and participation in cryptocurrency transactions, it’s not a matter of whether you have an interest in crypto, think it’s all a bizarre techno-bubble, the eventual replacement for fiat currency, or somewhere in between. The fact of the matter is your clients, and future clients, are more likely than ever to have a connection to this market, and a brief review of the headlines can make this prospect seem terrifying.